There was no official, deliberate or systemic Israeli policy of expelling Palestinians from the newly established State of Israel. As many as 700,000 Palestinians abandoned their homes when five Arab armies invaded the newly declared state on May 15, 1948. During the chaotic and volatile war, some of the Palestinians who left did so voluntarily to avoid the war. In certain villages, some left at the urging of Arab leaders who promised a quick return to their homes after an anticipated Arab victory over the new Jewish state. Recent historical studies have revealed that in some towns and villages, Palestinians were forced to flee by individuals or groups fighting for Israel. Palestinians who stayed were made full citizens of the new State of Israel.