On August 19, Hamas violated an agreement to extend an eight day ceasefire and resumed firing rockets from Gaza into Israel. The IDF retaliated by attacking Hamas targets in Gaza, including senior terrorist leaders. On August 14, Israel and Hamas had agreed to extend a 72-hour ceasefire by an additional five days, in order to allow both sides to (indirectly) negotiate a longer-term arrangement. Israel made it clear that it would retaliate against Hamas if rockets are fired into Israel during the ceasefire period.
In response to unceasing rocket and missile fire on civilian centers in Israel, on July 7, Israel launched a military operation, codenamed "Operation Protective Edge", targeting strategic Hamas facilities, tunnels, weapons and leadership. On July 17, following days of unceasing rocket fire, Israel expanded its military operation by sending IDF ground troops into Gaza in order to destroy Hamas's infrastructure, including rocket storage sites and tunnels which cannot be destroyed by aerial attacks. Hamas smuggles rockets and other weapons into Gaza through its tunnels, and uses them to infiltrate Israel with the intention of killing and kidnapping civilians and soldiers. On August 3, the IDF announced that it had finished destroying Hamas' tunnels, and withdrew most of its ground forces from Gaza.
Since early July, nearly 3500 missiles, rockets and mortars have been fired from Hamas-controlled Gaza into Israeli cities and towns, including Tel-Aviv, Jerusalem, Be'er Sheva, Ashkelon, and even as far north as Haifa, a distance of over 85 miles from Gaza. At least three Israelis have been killed by rocket or mortar fire, and a number have been injured, some quite seriously. There has also been extensive damage to homes and other structures. The Iron Dome missile defense system has intercepted hundreds of projectiles fired into Israel, including missiles fired at Ben Gurion International Airport. Two-thirds of Israel's civilian population (equal to over 200 million Americans) — Jews, Muslims, Christians and others — are now directly threatened by missiles from Gaza. In addition, Israeli security forces have stopped terrorists from infiltrating inside Israel from sea, over land and through underground tunnels.
The IDF aims to curtail Hamas' ability to attack Israel — through rocket, missile, mortar attacks, and through an extensive network of underground tunnels, to ensure quiet and security for the Israeli population. The IDF announced that it has uncovered and destroyed 32 tunnels and over 60 tunnel shafts. Referring to the labyrinth of tunnels, Israeli military spokesmen speak of there being two Gazas — one above ground, and one below. Entry points to these tunnels have been found in mosques, civilian homes and civilian institutions. Exit points in Israel have been discovered in kibbutz dining halls, in fields near Israeli towns and on the outskirts of Israeli communities all along the border with Gaza.