Year in Review: Anti-LGBTQ+ Hate & Extremism Incidents, 2022 – 2023

The below report is an interactive presentation. Click the arrow to the top right of the below image to view the report.


Between June 2022 and April 2023, ADL and GLAAD documented at least 356 anti-LGBTQ+ extremist and non-extremist incidents motivated by hate across the United States. From demonstrations aiming to intimidate organizers and attendees at drag shows, to bomb threats against hospitals that offer health care for LGBTQ+ people to a mass shooting that took the lives of five people in Colorado, incidents of anti-LGBTQ+ hate and extremism are an important part of a larger story about the heightened threats facing the LGBTQ+ community in the United States today.

Key Findings

  • From June 2022 to April 2023, ADL and GLAAD tracked at least 356 incidents of anti-LGBTQ+ hate and extremism in the United States.
  • Of the 356 total incidents, there were 305 incidents of harassment, 40 incidents of vandalism and 11 incidents of assault.
  • Nearly half of all incidents (49%) were perpetrated wholly or substantially by individuals associated with extremist groups.
  • Incidents were documented across 46 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, with California, Florida, New York and Texas seeing the highest total number of incidents. 
  • Trends in target type were also recorded, with 138 incidents relating to drag events and performers, 33 incidents relating to schools and educators, 23 incidents relating to healthcare facilities and providers and 22 incidents relating to government buildings and elected officials.
  • The baseless “grooming” conspiracy theory was the most-cited anti-LGBTQ+ trope, with at least 191 anti-LGBTQ+ incidents of harassment, vandalism and assault making explicit references to “grooming” or “pedophilia.”
  • Anti-LGBTQ+ incidents often overlapped with other forms of hate, with at least 128 incidents also citing antisemitic tropes and 30 incidents also citing racist tropes. 


  1. The Year in Review: Anti-LGBTQ+ Hate & Extremism Incidents report is comprised of both criminal and extremist and non-extremist incidents of harassment, vandalism and assault against individuals and groups as reported to and identified by ADL from victim reports, the media and partner organizations. It is not a public opinion poll or an effort to catalog every expression of anti-LGBTQ+ extremism and hate. 
  2. Anti-LGBTQ+ incidents are defined as vandalism of property or as harassment or assault on individuals, groups and/or institutions, where either 1) circumstances indicate anti-LGBTQ+ animus on the part of the perpetrator or 2) a reasonable person could plausibly conclude they were being victimized due to their real or perceived LGBTQ+ identity or affiliation. 
  3. Reporting: ADL & GLAAD recognize that many cases of anti-LGBTQ+ hate and extremism are not reported publicly for a variety of reasons and thus this report does not claim to represent every instance of harassment, vandalism and assault. 
  4. Online Content: The report includes cases where individuals or groups were directly targeted with harassment online via anti-LGBTQ+ content, including through direct messages, on listservs or in social media settings where they would have the reasonable expectation of not being subjected to anti-LGBTQ+ hate. The report does not attempt to assess the total amount of anti-LGBTQ+ hate online. To learn more about anti-LGBTQ+ hate online, read the ADL Center on Technology and Society’s 2022 Online Hate and Harassment report and GLAAD’s 2023 Social Media Safety Index.
  5. Anti-LGBTQ+ Legislation: The report does not include anti-LGBTQ+ legislation as incidents. ADL and GLAAD fully recognize the potential harm caused by these bills and laws and are closely tracking this legislation in other formats.
  6. Excluded Incidents:
    1. Anti-LGBTQ+ activities or statements which take place in private venues (e.g., at a private meeting) or in a manner that requires potential victims to “opt-in” in order to access them (e.g., by going to websites where unmoderated discussion occurs, looking at specific individuals’ social media pages, etc.). 
    2. Instances of discrimination (e.g., an LGBTQ-identified mother being denied maternal leave), unless the discrimination is accompanied by harassment meeting the criteria described above. 
    3. Instances of doxing (e.g., releasing the private information of an LGBTQ+ community leader), unless that doxing is followed by online or real-world harassment or threats. 
    4. General expressions of white supremacy or other hateful ideologies, unless those expressions include overt anti-LGBTQ+ elements which target a specific individual or institution. 
  7. Data Sources: 
    1. Incidents included in the report are identified through numerous methods. ADL staff verify the credibility of every incident, eliminate duplicates and weed out trolling and spam before including them in the report. 
    2. Many incidents included in the report are reported to ADL and GLAAD directly via ADL’s online reporting form, email or phone message. Researchers also monitor media reports and other online spaces for credible reports of anti-LGBTQ+ incidents. 
    3. The data used in this report is also publicly available via ADL’s H.E.A.T. Map.  

Additional Resources

The research in this article was made possible thanks to a partnership between ADL and GLAAD focused on countering anti-LGBTQ+ extremism and hate. Click here to learn more about this critical partnership.